Bougainville, Louis Antoine, Comte de


Bougainville, Louis Antoine, Comte de
(1729-1811)
   Born in Paris. Educated for his father's profession of notary; and soon obtained recognition as an advocate in the Parliament of Paris. As a student displayed a remarkable talent for mathematics, and at the age of twenty-two wrote the first volume of a treatise on the Integral Calculus. His mathematical work recognized by the Royal Society in electing him to a fellowship. Joined the army in 1755, and the next year came to Canada as Montcalm's aide-de-camp. Played an important part in the siege of Quebec, and wrote an elaborate journal of the campaign, much of which appears to have been incorporated in Montcalm's Journal, published by Abbé Casgrain. Returned to France in 1760, and after serving in Germany, joined the navy. From 1766 to 1769 made a voyage around the world; served in the West Indies during the Revolutionary War, and commanded the van of the French fleet in the action off Chesapeake Bay. Retired from active service, 1790; nominated by Napoleon to the Senate, and raised to the nobility.
   Index: WM Aide-de-camp to Montcalm, 1; despatched to France to represent desperate state of colony, 62; commands Grenadiers along Beauport shore, 85; incurs Bigot's hostility, 88; ordered to protect country west of Quebec, 151, 158; interview with Montcalm at Beauport, 160; Vaudreuil writes that safety of colony is in his hands, 161; duped by Wolfe's strategy, 177; criticized by Chevalier Johnstone, 177; his promotion due to court favour, 177; disregards instructions of governor by changing commander at Le Foulon, 178; great reliance placed on him, 178; his failure to reinforce post at the Foulon, 178, 184; his failure to follow British fleet down from Cap Rouge, 184; held responsible for disaster, 210; his delay at Sillery, 211; arrives after battle, 222; his letter to Ramezay, regarding provisions, 226; holds his position at Cap Rouge while rest of army retreats, 229; on march to Quebec, hears of capitulation, 234; replaces Lusignan at Ile-aux-Noix, 245; congratulates Lévis on victory of Ste. Foy, 267.
   Bib.: Works: Traité du Calcul Intégral; Voyage autour du Monde; Essai Historique sur les Navigations Anciennes et Modernes (Acad. des Sciences Morales et Pol., Vol. I); Notice Historique sur les Sauvages de l'Amerique Septentrionale (ibid., Vol. III). His letters are printed in Doughty, Siege of Quebec; and his manuscript journals are in the Canadian Archives.
   See also De Kerallain, La Jeunesse de Bougainville; Michaud, Biog. Univ.; Larousse, Grande Dict. Univ.; Casgrain, Montcalm et Lévis; Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe; Wood, The Fight for Canada; Hart, The Fall of New France, 1755-1760.

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